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  • Border And Text Effect Psp8 Do you want to jazz up your graphics? Want to add a bit of pazazz to your art? Well, this guide features some knowledge, border effects, and even directions to make your own swirlie brushes!

    Now, open PSP and get ready to learn! Let's start off with the basics.

    -------------------------------------------------
    -Border Effects

    There are two main types of borders, solid borders, and decorative borders. A solid border is like a colored line that raps around the outside of your image and separates graphics from the rest of the page. You can have borders inside the outside borders to make awesome layer effects. Decorative borders are almost the same, except they are not completely connected. (Example - Dashed Borders)
    -------------------------------------------------
    Dashed Borders
    Open PSP and create an image about 380 x 100 pixels with a white background.

    Draw a bit with your paintbrush, just add some color. Now maximize your image.

    It should take up the whole page. Now go up to the toolbar on the very top and click "Selections" and go down right below that and click "Select All" There should be a dotted line going around the outside of your image.

    We're almost done! YAY! Ok, now look on your keyboard. Go to the very top row next to the F1, F2, F3, F4, and look to the right of the F12 button. It should say "Print Screen". Press it, and it will take a picture of everything currently open on your computer that you can see. Now go to the top toolbar once one. Go under "Edit", move down to "Paste", then move your mouse to the right and select "Paste as New Image"

    Now, your image has a dashed border, but you can see all the unwanted parts of your workspace. So go to the left toolbar and click the crop tool. It is the small square with a line through it.

    Now drag the segment the crop tool makes just around the image. You might want to zoom in some (Click the magnifying glass on the left toolbar on the spot you want to zoom in). Once you have it fully outlined with the crop segment, double-click to crop it. Wallah! Your image now has a dashed border. So just go to the top toolbar once again, go under "File" and click "Save As". Then, select the spot and name to save it.

    -------------------------------------------------
    -Font Suggestions and Styles

    So you know how to make a cool border for your images. Now what about fonts? Well usually, for siggies, you would put a bigger font saying their name, and a smaller font with sub-text. Look at my signature:



    See how it says "Anonymous" in a large font that matches the background; then under it, it says "SOD's coolest member" (my sub-text) in a smaller font? That's the usual format for text on signatures. Of couse, this isn't the only way.

    Now, for some font suggestions:

    Larger Fonts
    Laurenscript
    Baby Kruffy (This one is awesome!)
    Casual
    Chick
    Cheri
    Walt Disney
    Mullet
    Dolphins (yippee!)
    Jelly Belly
    Flubber
    Porky's
    Gilligan's Island
    Cheeseburger

    Smaller Fonts
    Redensek
    Mullet
    Georgia
    Acknowledge
    Tahoma

    -------------------------------------------------

    Helpful Links


    http://peachie.nu
    (a few popups though)

    Font Places


    http://www.dafont.com/en/
    http://www.1001freefonts.com/
    http://www.fontfreak.com/
    http://www.acidfonts.com/

    more
  • A Very Small Tut For Real Media You may find this helpful if you donwload hundreds of short episodes in rm format like me and tired of double-click to open next files.

    Very easy. Use notepad to open a new file, type this inside:
    file://link to file1
    file://link to file2
    (type as many as you want)
    Close file. Rename it to FileName.rm

    Then you`re done!!!!

    Ex:
    I put my playlist file here: C:\Movies\7VNR
    And the movie files are in C:\Movies\7VNR\DragonBall

    Then inside my playlist file I`ll have something like this:

    file://DragonBall/db134.rm
    file://DragonBall/db135.rm
    file://DragonBall/db136.rm
    file://DragonBall/db137.rm
    file://DragonBall/db138.rm

    more
  • ALL About Movie Tags Original Sources

    CAM -
    A cam is a theater rip usually done with a digital video camera. A mini tripod is sometimes used, but a lot of the time this wont be possible, so the camera make shake. Also seating placement isn't always idle, and it might be filmed from an angle. If cropped properly, this is hard to tell unless there's text on the screen, but a lot of times these are left with triangular borders on the top and bottom of the screen. Sound is taken from the onboard microphone of the camera, and especially in comedies, laughter can often be heard during the film. Due to these factors picture and sound quality are usually quite poor, but sometimes we're lucky, and the theater will be fairly empty and a fairly clear signal will be heard.



    TELESYNC (TS) - A telesync is the same spec as a CAM except it uses an external audio source (most likely an audio jack in the chair for hard of hearing people). A direct audio source does not ensure a good quality audio source, as a lot of background noise can interfere. A lot of the times a telesync is filmed in an empty cinema or from the projection booth with a professional camera, giving a better picture quality. Quality ranges drastically, check the sample before downloading the full release. A high percentage of Telesyncs are CAMs that have been mislabeled.



    TELECINE (TC) -
    A telecine machine copies the film digitally from the reels. Sound and picture should be very good, but due to the equipment involved and cost telecines are fairly uncommon. Generally the film will be in correct aspect ratio, although 4:3 telecines have existed. A great example is the JURASSIC PARK 3 TC done last year. TC should not be confused with TimeCode , which is a visible counter on screen throughout the film.



    SCREENER (SCR) -
    A pre VHS tape, sent to rental stores, and various other places for promotional use. A screener is supplied on a VHS tape, and is usually in a 4:3 (full screen) a/r, although letterboxed screeners are sometimes found. The main draw back is a "ticker" (a message that scrolls past at the bottom of the screen, with the copyright and anti-copy telephone number). Also, if the tape contains any serial numbers, or any other markings that could lead to the source of the tape, these will have to be blocked, usually with a black mark over the section. This is sometimes only for a few seconds, but unfortunately on some copies this will last for the entire film, and some can be quite big. Depending on the equipment used, screener quality can range from excellent if done from a MASTER copy, to very poor if done on an old VHS recorder thru poor capture equipment on a copied tape. Most screeners are transferred to VCD, but a few attempts at SVCD have occurred, some looking better than others.



    DVD-SCREENER (DVDscr) -Same premise as a screener, but transferred off a DVD. Usually letterbox , but without the extras that a DVD retail would contain. The ticker is not usually in the black bars, and will disrupt the viewing. If the ripper has any skill, a DVDscr should be very good. Usually transferred to SVCD or DivX/XviD.



    DVDRip - A copy of the final released DVD. If possible this is released PRE retail (for example, Star Wars episode 2) again, should be excellent quality. DVDrips are released in SVCD and DivX/XviD.



    VHSRip -Transferred off a retail VHS, mainly skating/sports videos and XXX releases.



    TVRip -TV episode that is either from Network (capped using digital cable/satellite boxes are preferable) or PRE-AIR from satellite feeds sending the program around to networks a few days earlier (do not contain "dogs" but sometimes have flickers etc) Some programs such as WWF Raw Is War contain extra parts, and the "dark matches" and camera/commentary tests are included on the rips. PDTV is capped from a digital TV PCI card, generally giving the best results, and groups tend to release in SVCD for these. VCD/SVCD/DivX/XviD rips are all supported by the TV scene.



    WORKPRINT (WP) -A workprint is a copy of the film that has not been finished. It can be missing scenes, music, and quality can range from excellent to very poor. Some WPs are very different from the final print (Men In Black is missing all the aliens, and has actors in their places) and others can contain extra scenes (Jay and Silent Bob) . WPs can be nice additions to the collection once a good quality final has been obtained.



    DivX Re-Enc -A DivX re-enc is a film that has been taken from its original VCD source, and re-encoded into a small DivX file. Most commonly found on file sharers, these are usually labeled something like Film.Name.Group(1of2) etc. Common groups are SMR and TND. These aren't really worth downloading, unless you're that unsure about a film u only want a 200mb copy of it. Generally avoid.



    Watermarks -
    A lot of films come from Asian Silvers/PDVD (see below) and these are tagged by the people responsible. Usually with a letter/initials or a little logo, generally in one of the corners. Most famous are the "Z" "A" and "Globe" watermarks.



    Asian Silvers / PDVD -
    These are films put out by eastern bootleggers, and these are usually bought by some groups to put out as their own. Silvers are very cheap and easily available in a lot of countries, and its easy to put out a release, which is why there are so many in the scene at the moment, mainly from smaller groups who don't last more than a few releases. PDVDs are the same thing pressed onto a DVD. They have removable subtitles, and the quality is usually better than the silvers. These are ripped like a normal DVD, but usually released as VCD.






    Formats

    VCD -
    VCD is an mpeg1 based format, with a constant bitrate of 1150kbit at a resolution of 352x240 (NTCS). VCDs are generally used for lower quality transfers (CAM/TS/TC/Screener(VHS)/TVrip(analogue) in order to make smaller file sizes, and fit as much on a single disc as possible. Both VCDs and SVCDs are timed in minutes, rather than MB, so when looking at an mpeg, it may appear larger than the disc capacity, and in reality u can fit 74min on a CDR74.



    SVCD -
    SVCD is an mpeg2 based (same as DVD) which allows variable bit-rates of up to 2500kbits at a resolution of 480x480 (NTSC) which is then decompressed into a 4:3 aspect ratio when played back. Due to the variable bit-rate, the length you can fit on a single CDR is not fixed, but generally between 35-60 Mins are the most common. To get a better SVCD encode using variable bit-rates, it is important to use multiple "passes". this takes a lot longer, but the results are far clearer.



    XVCD/XSVCD -
    These are basically VCD/SVCD that don't obey the "rules". They are both capable of much higher resolutions and bit-rates, but it all depends on the player to whether the disc can be played. X(S)VCD are total non-standards, and are usually for home-ripping by people who don't intend to release them.



    KVCD Thanks for lardo4life for the info
    KVCD is a modification to the standard MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 GOP structure and Quantization Matrix. It enables you to create over 120 minutes of near DVD quality video, depending on your material, on a single 80 minute CD-R/CD-RW. We have published these specifications as KVCDx3, our official resolution, which produce 528x480 (NTSC) and 528x576 (PAL) MPEG-1 variable bit rate video, from 64Kbps to 3,000Kbps. Using a resolution of 352x240 (NTSC) or 352x288 (PAL), it's possible to encode video up to ~360 minutes of near VCD quality on a single 80 minute CD-R. The mpeg files created will play back in most modern standalone DVD players. You must burn the KVCD MPEG files as non-standard VCD or non-standard SVCD (depends on your player) with Nero or VCDEasy.



    DivX / XviD -
    DivX is a format designed for multimedia platforms. It uses two codecs, one low motion, one high motion. most older films were encoded in low motion only, and they have problems with high motion too. A method known as SBC (Smart Bit-rate Control) was developed which switches codecs at the encoding stage, making a much better print. The format is Ana orphic and the bit-rate/resolution are interchangeable. Due to the higher processing power required, and the different codecs for playback, its unlikely we'll see a DVD player capable of play DivX for quite a while, if at all. There have been players in development which are supposedly capable, but nothing has ever arisen. The majority of PROPER DivX rips (not Re-Encs) are taken from DVDs, and generally up to 2hours in good quality is possible per disc. Various codecs exist, most popular being the original Divx3.11a and the new XviD codecs.



    CVD -
    CVD is a combination of VCD and SVCD formats, and is generally supported by a majority of DVD players. It supports MPEG2 bit-rates of SVCD, but uses a resolution of 352x480(ntsc) as the horizontal resolution is generally less important. Currently no groups release in CVD.



    DVD-R -
    Is the recordable DVD solution that seems to be the most popular (out of DVD-RAM, DVD-R and DVD+R). it holds 4.7gb of data per side, and double sided discs are available, so discs can hold nearly 10gb in some circumstances. SVCD mpeg2 images must be converted before they can be burnt to DVD-R and played successfully. DVD>DVDR copies are possible, but sometimes extras/languages have to be removed to stick within the available 4.7gb.



    MiniDVD -
    MiniDVD/cDVD is the same format as DVD but on a standard CDR/CDRW. Because of the high resolution/bit-rates, its only possible to fit about 18-21 mins of footage per disc, and the format is only compatible with a few players.






    Misc Info

    Regional Coding -
    This was designed to stop people buying American DVDs and watching them earlier in other countries, or for older films where world distribution is handled by different companies. A lot of players can either be hacked with a chip, or via a remote to disable this.



    RCE -
    RCE (Regional Coding Enhancement) was designed to overcome "Multiregion" players, but it had a lot of faults and was overcome. Very few titles are RCE encoded now, and it was very unpopular.



    Macrovision -
    Macrovision is the copy protection employed on most commercial DVDs. Its a system that will display lines and darken the images of copies that are made by sending the VHS signals it can't understand. Certain DVD players (for example the Dansai 852 from Tescos) have a secret menu where you can disable the macrovision, or a "video stabaliser" costs about 30UKP from Maplin (www.maplin.co.uk)



    NTSC/PAL -
    NTSC and PAL are the two main standards used across the world. NTSC has a higher frame rate than pal (29fps compared to 25fps) but PAL has an increased resolution, and gives off a generally sharper picture. Playing NTSC discs on PAL systems seems a lot easier than vice-versa, which is good news for the Brits An RGB enabled scart lead will play an NTSC picture in full colour on most modern tv sets, but to record this to a VHS tape, you will need to convert it to PAL50 (not PAL60 as the majority of DVD players do.) This is either achieved by an expensive converter box (in the regions of £200+) an onboard converter (such as the Dansai 852 / certain Daewoos / Samsung 709 ) or using a World Standards VCR which can record in any format.



    News Sites -
    There are generally 2 news sites for film release for p2p and they are:

    nforce - VCD Help
    Code:
    http://www.vcdhelp.com/

    Code:
    http://www.nforce.nl.




    About Release Files

    RARset -
    The movies are all supplied in RAR form, whether its v2 (rar>.rxx) or v3 (part01.rar > partxx.rar) form.



    BIN/CUE -
    VCD and SVCD films will extract to give a BIN/CUE. Load the .CUE into notepad and make sure the first line contains only a filename, and no path information. Then load the cue into Nero/CDRWin etc and this will burn the VCD/SVCD correctly. TV rips are released as MPEG. DivX files are just the plain DivX - .AVI



    NFO -
    An NFO file is supplied with each movie to promote the group, and give general iNFOrmation about the release, such as format, source, size, and any notes that may be of use. They are also used to recruit members and acquire hardware for the group.

    SFV -
    Also supplied for each disc is an SFV file. These are mainly used on site level to check each file has been uploaded correctly, but are also handy for people downloading to check they have all the files, and the CRC is correct. A program such as pdSFV or hkSFV is required to use these files.






    Usenet Information

    Access -
    To get onto newsgroups, you will need a news server. Most ISPs supply one, but this is usually of poor retention (the amount of time the files are on server for) and poor completition (the amount of files that make it there). For the best service, a premium news server should be paid for, and these will often have bandwidth restrictions in place.



    Software -
    You will need a newsreader to access the files in the binary newsgroups. There are many different readers, and its usually down to personal opinion which is best. Xnews / Forte Agent / BNR 1 / BNR 2 are amongst the popular choices. Outlook has the ability to read newsgroups, but its recommended to not use that.



    Format -
    Usenet posts are often the same as those listed on VCDQUALiTY (i.e., untouched group releases) but you have to check the filenames and the description to make sure you get what you think you are getting. Generally releases should come down in .RAR sets. Posts will usually take more than one day to be uploaded, and can be spread out as far as a week.



    PAR files -
    As well as the .rxx files, you will also see files listed as .pxx/.par . These are PARITY files. Parity files are common in usenet posts, as a lot of times, there will be at least one or two damaged files on some servers. A parity file can be used to replace ANY ONE file that is missing from the rar set. The more PAR files you have, the more files you can replace. You will need a program called SMARTPAR for this.






    Scene Tags

    PROPER -
    Due to scene rules, whoever releases the first Telesync has won that race (for example). But if the quality of that release is fairly poor, if another group has another telesync (or the same source in higher quality) then the tag PROPER is added to the folder to avoid being duped. PROPER is the most subjective tag in the scene, and a lot of people will generally argue whether the PROPER is better than the original release. A lot of groups release PROPERS just out of desperation due to losing the race. A reason for the PROPER should always be included in the NFO.



    SUBBED -
    In the case of a VCD, if a release is subbed, it usually means it has hard encoded subtitles burnt throughout the movie. These are generally in malaysian/chinese/thai etc, and sometimes there are two different languages, which can take up quite a large amount of the screen. SVCD supports switch able subtitles, so some DVDRips are released with switch able subs. This will be mentioned in the NFO file if included.



    UNSUBBED -
    When a film has had a subbed release in the past, an Unsubbed release may be released

    LIMITED -
    A limited movie means it has had a limited theater run, generally opening in less than 250 theaters, generally smaller films (such as art house films) are released as limited.



    INTERNAL -
    An internal release is done for several reasons. Classic DVD groups do a lot of .INTERNAL. releases, as they wont be dupe'd on it. Also lower quality theater rips are done INTERNAL so not to lower the reputation of the group, or due to the amount of rips done already. An INTERNAL release is available as normal on the groups affiliate sites, but they can't be traded to other sites without request from the site ops. Some INTERNAL releases still trickle down to IRC/Newsgroups, it usually depends on the title and the popularity. Earlier in the year people referred to Centropy going "internal". This meant the group were only releasing the movies to their members and site ops. This is in a different context to the usual definition.



    STV -
    Straight To Video. Was never released in theaters, and therefore a lot of sites do not allow these.



    OTHER TAGS -

    *WS* for widescreen (letterbox)
    *FS* for Fullscreen.



    RECODE -
    A recode is a previously released version, usually filtered through TMPGenc to remove subtitles, fix color etc. Whilst they can look better, its not looked upon highly as groups are expected to obtain their own sources.



    REPACK -
    If a group releases a bad rip, they will release a Repack which will fix the problems.



    NUKED -
    A film can be nuked for various reasons. Individual sites will nuke for breaking their rules (such as "No Telesyncs") but if the film has something extremely wrong with it (no soundtrack for 20mins, CD2 is incorrect film/game etc) then a global nuke will occur, and people trading it across sites will lose their credits. Nuked films can still reach other sources such as p2p/usenet, but its a good idea to check why it was nuked first in case. If a group realise there is something wrong, they can request a nuke.

    NUKE REASONS :: this is a list of common reasons a film can be nuked for (generally DVDRip)

    ** BAD A/R ** :: bad aspect ratio, ie people appear too fat/thin
    ** BAD IVTC ** :: bad inverse telecine. process of converting framerates was incorrect.
    ** INTERLACED ** :: black lines on movement as the field order is incorrect.



    DUPE -
    Dupe is quite simply, if something exists already, then theres no reason for it to exist again without proper reason.

    more
  • Create A Huge File You can create a file of any size using nothing more than what's supplied with Windows. Start by converting the desired file size into hexadecimal notation. You can use the Windows Calculator in Scientific mode do to this. Suppose you want a file of 1 million bytes. Enter 1000000 in the calculator and click on the Hex option to convert it (1 million in hex is F4240.) Pad the result with zeroes at the left until the file size reaches eight digits—000F4240.

    Now open a command prompt window. In Windows 95, 98, or Me, you can do this by entering COMMAND in the Start menu's Run dialog; in Windows NT 4.0, 2000, or XP enter CMD instead. Enter the command DEBUG BIGFILE.DAT and ignore the File not found message. Type RCX and press Enter. Debug will display a colon prompt. Enter the last four digits of the hexadecimal number you calculated (4240, in our example). Type RBX and press Enter, then enter the first four digits of the hexadecimal size (000F, in our example). Enter W for Write and Q for Quit. You've just created a 1-million-byte file using Debug. Of course you can create a file of any desired size using the same technique.

    more
  • A Web Standards Checklist, How to make a proper website A web standards checklist

    The term web standards can mean different things to different people. For some, it is 'table-free sites', for others it is 'using valid code'. However, web standards are much broader than that. A site built to web standards should adhere to standards (HTML, XHTML, XML, CSS, XSLT, DOM, MathML, SVG etc) and pursue best practices (valid code, accessible code, semantically correct code, user-friendly URLs etc).

    In other words, a site built to web standards should ideally be lean, clean, CSS-based, accessible, usable and search engine friendly.

    About the checklist

    This is not an uber-checklist. There are probably many items that could be added. More importantly, it should not be seen as a list of items that must be addressed on every site that you develop. It is simply a guide that can be used:

    * to show the breadth of web standards
    * as a handy tool for developers during the production phase of websites
    * as an aid for developers who are interested in moving towards web standards

    The checklist

    1.Quality of code
    1. Does the site use a correct Doctype?
    2. Does the site use a Character set?
    3. Does the site use Valid (X)HTML?
    4. Does the site use Valid CSS?
    5. Does the site use any CSS hacks?
    6. Does the site use unnecessary classes or ids?
    7. Is the code well structured?
    8. Does the site have any broken links?
    9. How does the site perform in terms of speed/page size?
    10. Does the site have JavaScript errors?

    2. Degree of separation between content and presentation
    1. Does the site use CSS for all presentation aspects (fonts, colour, padding, borders etc)?
    2. Are all decorative images in the CSS, or do they appear in the (X)HTML?

    3. Accessibility for users
    1. Are "alt" attributes used for all descriptive images?
    2. Does the site use relative units rather than absolute units for text size?
    3. Do any aspects of the layout break if font size is increased?
    4. Does the site use visible skip menus?
    5. Does the site use accessible forms?
    6. Does the site use accessible tables?
    7. Is there sufficient colour brightness/contrasts?
    8. Is colour alone used for critical information?
    9. Is there delayed responsiveness for dropdown menus (for users with reduced motor skills)?
    10. Are all links descriptive (for blind users)?

    4. Accessibility for devices
    1. Does the site work acceptably across modern and older browsers?
    2. Is the content accessible with CSS switched off or not supported?
    3. Is the content accessible with images switched off or not supported?
    4. Does the site work in text browsers such as Lynx?
    5. Does the site work well when printed?
    6. Does the site work well in Hand Held devices?
    7. Does the site include detailed metadata?
    8. Does the site work well in a range of browser window sizes?

    5. Basic Usability
    1. Is there a clear visual hierarchy?
    2. Are heading levels easy to distinguish?
    3. Does the site have easy to understand navigation?
    4. Does the site use consistent navigation?
    5. Are links underlined?
    6. Does the site use consistent and appropriate language?
    7. Do you have a sitemap page and contact page? Are they easy to find?
    8. For large sites, is there a search tool?
    9. Is there a link to the home page on every page in the site?
    10. Are visited links clearly defined with a unique colour?

    6. Site management
    1. Does the site have a meaningful and helpful 404 error page that works from any depth in the site?
    2. Does the site use friendly URLs?
    3. Do your URLs work without "www"?
    4. Does the site have a favicon?

    1. Quality of code

    1.1 Does the site use a correct Doctype?
    A doctype (short for 'document type declaration') informs the validator which version of (X)HTML you're using, and must appear at the very top of every web page. Doctypes are a key component of compliant web pages: your markup and CSS won't validate without them.
    CODE
    http://www.alistapart.com/articles/doctype/


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html

    CODE
    http://css.maxdesign.com.au/listamatic/about-boxmodel.htm

    CODE
    http://gutfeldt.ch/matthias/articles/doctypeswitch.html


    1.2 Does the site use a Character set?
    If a user agent (eg. a browser) is unable to detect the character encoding used in a Web document, the user may be presented with unreadable text. This information is particularly important for those maintaining and extending a multilingual site, but declaring the character encoding of the document is important for anyone producing XHTML/HTML or CSS.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/International/tutorials/tutorial-char-enc/


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/International/O-charset.html


    1.3 Does the site use Valid (X)HTML?
    Valid code will render faster than code with errors. Valid code will render better than invalid code. Browsers are becoming more standards compliant, and it is becoming increasingly necessary to write valid and standards compliant HTML.
    CODE
    http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/sit2003/06.htm


    More:
    CODE
    http://validator.w3.org/


    1.4 Does the site use Valid CSS?
    You need to make sure that there aren't any errors in either your HTML or your CSS, since mistakes in either place can result in botched document appearance.
    CODE
    http://www.meyerweb.com/eric/articles/webrev/199904.html


    More:
    CODE
    http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/


    1.5 Does the site use any CSS hacks?
    Basically, hacks come down to personal choice, the amount of knowledge you have of workarounds, the specific design you are trying to achieve.
    CODE
    http://www.mail-archive.com/wsg@webstandardsgroup.org/msg05823.html


    More:
    CODE
    http://css-discuss.incutio.com/?page=CssHack

    CODE
    http://css-discuss.incutio.com/?page=ToHackOrNotToHack

    CODE
    http://centricle.com/ref/css/filters/


    1.6 Does the site use unnecessary classes or ids?
    I've noticed that developers learning new skills often end up with good CSS but poor XHTML. Specifically, the HTML code tends to be full of unnecessary divs and ids. This results in fairly meaningless HTML and bloated style sheets.
    CODE
    http://www.clagnut.com/blog/228/


    1.7 Is the code well structured?
    Semantically correct markup uses html elements for their given purpose. Well structured HTML has semantic meaning for a wide range of user agents (browsers without style sheets, text browsers, PDAs, search engines etc.)
    CODE
    http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/benefits/index04.htm


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/2003/12/semantic-extractor.html


    1.8 Does the site have any broken links?
    Broken links can frustrate users and potentially drive customers away. Broken links can also keep search engines from properly indexing your site.

    More:
    CODE
    http://validator.w3.org/checklink


    1.9 How does the site perform in terms of speed/page size?
    Don't make me wait... That's the message users give us in survey after survey. Even broadband users can suffer the slow-loading blues.
    CODE
    http://www.websiteoptimization.com/speed/


    1.10 Does the site have JavaScript errors?
    Internet Explore for Windows allows you to turn on a debugger that will pop up a new window and let you know there are javascript errors on your site. This is available under 'Internet Options' on the Advanced tab. Uncheck 'Disable script debugging'.

    2. Degree of separation between content and presentation

    2.1 Does the site use CSS for all presentation aspects (fonts, colour, padding, borders etc)?
    Use style sheets to control layout and presentation.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-style-sheets


    2.2 Are all decorative images in the CSS, or do they appear in the (X)HTML?
    The aim for web developers is to remove all presentation from the html code, leaving it clean and semantically correct.
    CODE
    http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/benefits/index07.htm


    3. Accessibility for users

    3.1 Are "alt" attributes used for all descriptive images?
    Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-text-equivalent


    3.2 Does the site use relative units rather than absolute units for text size?
    Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values'.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-relative-units


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-relative-units

    CODE
    http://www.clagnut.com/blog/348/


    3.3 Do any aspects of the layout break if font size is increased?
    Try this simple test. Look at your website in a browser that supports easy incrementation of font size. Now increase your browser's font size. And again. And again... Look at your site. Does the page layout still hold together? It is dangerous for developers to assume that everyone browses using default font sizes.
    3.4 Does the site use visible skip menus?

    A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.
    CODE
    http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12


    Group related links, identify the group (for user agents), and, until user agents do so, provide a way to bypass the group.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10-TECHS/#tech-group-links


    ...blind visitors are not the only ones inconvenienced by too many links in a navigation area. Recall that a mobility-impaired person with poor adaptive technology might be stuck tabbing through that morass.
    CODE
    http://joeclark.org/book/sashay/serialization/Chapter08.html#h4-2020


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.niehs.nih.gov/websmith/508/o.htm


    3.5 Does the site use accessible forms?
    Forms aren't the easiest of things to use for people with disabilities. Navigating around a page with written content is one thing, hopping between form fields and inputting information is another.
    CODE
    http://www.htmldog.com/guides/htmladvanced/forms/


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.webstandards.org/learn/tutorials/accessible-forms/01-accessible-forms.html

    CODE
    http://www.accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessible-form-builder.asp

    CODE
    http://accessify.com/tutorials/better-accessible-forms.asp


    3.6 Does the site use accessible tables?
    For data tables, identify row and column headers... For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-table-headers


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.bcc.ctc.edu/webpublishing/ada/resources/tables.asp

    CODE
    http://www.accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessible-table-builder_step1.asp

    CODE
    http://www.webaim.org/techniques/tables/


    3.7 Is there sufficient colour brightness/contrasts?
    Ensure that foreground and background colour combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having colour deficits.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-colour-contrast


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.juicystudio.com/services/colourcontrast.asp


    3.8 Is colour alone used for critical information?
    Ensure that all information conveyed with colour is also available without colour, for example from context or markup.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-colour-convey


    There are basically three types of colour deficiency; Deuteranope (a form of red/green colour deficit), Protanope (another form of red/green colour deficit) and Tritanope (a blue/yellow deficit- very rare).

    More:
    CODE
    http://colourfilter.wickline.org/

    CODE
    http://www.toledo-bend.com/colourblind/Ishihara.html

    CODE
    http://www.vischeck.com/vischeck/vischeckURL.php


    3.9 Is there delayed responsiveness for dropdown menus?
    Users with reduced motor skills may find dropdown menus hard to use if responsiveness is set too fast.

    3.10 Are all links descriptive?
    Link text should be meaningful enough to make sense when read out of context - either on its own or as part of a sequence of links. Link text should also be terse.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-meaningful-links


    4. Accessibility for devices.

    4.1 Does the site work acceptably across modern and older browsers?

    Before starting to build a CSS-based layout, you should decide which browsers to support and to what level you intend to support them.
    CODE
    http://www.maxdesign.com.au/presentation/process/index_step01.cfm



    4.2 Is the content accessible with CSS switched off or not supported?
    Some people may visit your site with either a browser that does not support CSS or a browser with CSS switched off. In content is structured well, this will not be an issue.

    4.3 Is the content accessible with images switched off or not supported?
    Some people browse websites with images switched off - especially people on very slow connections. Content should still be accessible for these people.

    4.4 Does the site work in text browsers such as Lynx?
    This is like a combination of images and CSS switched off. A text-based browser will rely on well structured content to provide meaning.

    More:
    CODE
    http://www.delorie.com/web/lynxview


    4.5 Does the site work well when printed?
    You can take any (X)HTML document and simply style it for print, without having to touch the markup.
    CODE
    http://www.alistapart.com/articles/goingtoprint/


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/support/Training/Online/webdesign/css.html#print


    4.6 Does the site work well in Hand Held devices?
    This is a hard one to deal with until hand held devices consistently support their correct media type. However, some layouts work better in current hand-held devices. The importance of supporting hand held devices will depend on target audiences.

    4.7 Does the site include detailed metadata?
    Metadata is machine understandable information for the web
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/Metadata/


    Metadata is structured information that is created specifically to describe another resource. In other words, metadata is 'data about data'.


    4.8 Does the site work well in a range of browser window sizes?
    It is a common assumption amongst developers that average screen sizes are increasing. Some developers assume that the average screen size is now 1024px wide. But what about users with smaller screens and users with hand held devices? Are they part of your target audience and are they being disadvantaged?

    5. Basic Usability
    5.1 Is there a clear visual hierarchy?
    Organise and prioritise the contents of a page by using size, prominence and content relationships.
    CODE
    http://www.great-web-design-tips.com/web-site-design/165.html


    5.2 Are heading levels easy to distinguish?
    Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification.
    CODE
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/wai-pageauth.html#tech-logical-headings


    5.3 Is the site's navigation easy to understand?
    Your navigation system should give your visitor a clue as to what page of the site they are currently on and where they can go next.
    CODE
    http://www.1stsitefree.com/design_nav.htm


    5.4 Is the site's navigation consistent?
    If each page on your site has a consistent style of presentation, visitors will find it easier to navigate between pages and find information
    CODE
    http://www.juicystudio.com/tutorial/accessibility/navigation.asp


    5.5 Does the site use consistent and appropriate language?
    The use of clear and simple language promotes effective communication. Trying to come across as articulate can be as difficult to read as poorly written grammar, especially if the language used isn't the visitor's primary language.
    CODE
    http://www.juicystudio.com/tutorial/accessibility/clear.asp


    5.6 Does the site have a sitemap page and contact page? Are they easy to find?
    Most site maps fail to convey multiple levels of the site's information architecture. In usability tests, users often overlook site maps or can't find them. Complexity is also a problem: a map should be a map, not a navigational challenge of its own.
    CODE
    http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20020106.html


    5.7 For large sites, is there a search tool?
    While search tools are not needed on smaller sites, and some people will not ever use them, site-specific search tools allow users a choice of navigation options.

    5.8 Is there a link to the home page on every page in the site?
    Some users like to go back to a site's home page after navigating to content within a site. The home page becomes a base camp for these users, allowing them to regroup before exploring new content.

    5.9 Are links underlined?
    To maximise the perceived affordance of clickability, colour and underline the link text. Users shouldn't have to guess or scrub the page to find out where they can click.
    CODE
    http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040510.html


    5.10 Are visited links clearly defined?
    Most important, knowing which pages they've already visited frees users from unintentionally revisiting the same pages over and over again.
    CODE
    http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20040503.html


    6. Site management

    6.1 Does the site have a meaningful and helpful 404 error page that works from any depth in the site?
    You've requested a page - either by typing a URL directly into the address bar or clicking on an out-of-date link and you've found yourself in the middle of cyberspace nowhere. A user-friendly website will give you a helping hand while many others will simply do nothing, relying on the browser's built-in ability to explain what the problem is.
    CODE
    http://www.alistapart.com/articles/perfect404/


    6.2 Does the site use friendly URLs?
    Most search engines (with a few exceptions - namely Google) will not index any pages that have a question mark or other character (like an ampersand or equals sign) in the URL... what good is a site if no one can find it?
    CODE
    http://www.sitepoint.com/article/search-engine-friendly-urls


    One of the worst elements of the web from a user interface standpoint is the URL. However, if they're short, logical, and self-correcting, URLs can be acceptably usable
    CODE
    http://www.merges.net/theory/20010305.html


    More:
    CODE
    http://www.sitepoint.com/article/search-engine-friendly-urls

    CODE
    http://www.websitegoodies.com/article/32

    CODE
    http://www.merges.net/theory/20010305.html


    6.3 Does the site's URL work without "www"?
    While this is not critical, and in some cases is not even possible, it is always good to give people the choice of both options. If a user types your domain name without the www and gets no site, this could disadvantage both the user and you.
    6.4 Does the site have a favicon?

    A Favicon is a multi-resolution image included on nearly all professionally developed sites. The Favicon allows the webmaster to further promote their site, and to create a more customized appearance within a visitor's browser.
    CODE
    http://www.favicon.com/


    Favicons are definitely not critical. However, if they are not present, they can cause 404 errors in your logs (site statistics). Browsers like IE will request them from the server when a site is bookmarked. If a favicon isn't available, a 404 error may be generated. Therefore, having a favicon could cut down on favicon specific 404 errors. The same is true of a 'robots.txt' file.

    more
  • All About FTP You Must Know Setting Up A Ftp:

    Well, since many of us have always wondered this, here it is. Long and drawn out. Also, before attempting this, realize one thing; You will have to give up your time, effort, bandwidth, and security to have a quality ftp server.
    That being said, here it goes. First of all, find out if your IP (Internet Protocol) is static (not changing) or dynamic (changes everytime you log on). To do this, first consider the fact if you have a dial up modem. If you do, chances are about 999 999 out of 1 000 000 that your IP is dynamic. To make it static, just go to a place like h*tp://www.myftp.org/ to register for a static ip address.

    You'll then need to get your IP. This can be done by doing this:
    Going to Start -> Run -> winipcfg or www.ask.com and asking 'What is my IP?'

    After doing so, you'll need to download an FTP server client. Personally, I'd recommend G6 FTP Server, Serv-U FTPor Bullitproof v2.15 all three of which are extremely reliable, and the norm of the ftp world.
    You can download them on this site: h*tp://www.liaokai.com/softw_en/d_index.htm

    First, you'll have to set up your ftp. For this guide, I will use step-by-step instructions for G6. First, you'll have to go into 'Setup -> General'. From here, type in your port # (default is 21). I recommend something unique, or something a bit larger (ex: 3069). If you want to, check the number of max users (this sets the amount of simultaneous maximum users on your server at once performing actions - The more on at once, the slower the connection and vice versa).

    The below options are then chooseable:
    -Launch with windows
    -Activate FTP Server on Start-up
    -Put into tray on startup
    -Allow multiple instances
    -Show "Loading..." status at startup
    -Scan drive(s) at startup
    -Confirm exit

    You can do what you want with these, as they are pretty self explanatory. The scan drive feature is nice, as is the 2nd and the last option. From here, click the 'options' text on the left column.

    To protect your server, you should check 'login check' and 'password check', 'Show relative path (a must!)', and any other options you feel you'll need. After doing so, click the 'advanced' text in the left column. You should then leave the buffer size on the default (unless of course you know what you're doing ), and then allow the type of ftp you want.

    Uploading and downloading is usually good, but it's up to you if you want to allow uploads and/or downloads. For the server priority, that will determine how much conventional memory will be used and how much 'effort' will go into making your server run smoothly.

    Anti-hammering is also good, as it prevents people from slowing down your speed. From here, click 'Log Options' from the left column. If you would like to see and record every single command and clutter up your screen, leave the defaults.

    But, if you would like to see what is going on with the lowest possible space taken, click 'Screen' in the top column. You should then check off 'Log successful logins', and all of the options in the client directry, except 'Log directory changes'. After doing so, click 'Ok' in the bottom left corner.

    You will then have to go into 'Setup -> User Accounts' (or ctrl & u). From here, you should click on the right most column, and right click. Choose 'Add', and choose the username(s) you would like people to have access to.

    After giving a name (ex: themoonlanding), you will have to give them a set password in the bottom column (ex: wasfaked). For the 'Home IP' directory, (if you registered with a static server, check 'All IP Homes'. If your IP is static by default, choose your IP from the list. You will then have to right click in the very center column, and choose 'Add'.

    From here, you will have to set the directory you want the people to have access to. After choosing the directory, I suggest you choose the options 'Read', 'List', and 'Subdirs', unless of course you know what you're doing . After doing so, make an 'upload' folder in the directory, and choose to 'add' this folder seperately to the center column. Choose 'write', 'append', 'make', 'list', and 'subdirs'. This will allow them to upload only to specific folders (your upload folder).

    Now click on 'Miscellaneous' from the left column. Choose 'enable account', your time-out (how long it takes for people to remain idle before you automatically kick them off), the maximum number of users for this name, the maximum number of connections allowed simultaneously for one ip address, show relative path (a must!), and any other things at the bottom you'd like to have. Now click 'Ok'.
    **Requested**


    From this main menu, click the little boxing glove icon in the top corner, and right click and unchoose the hit-o-meter for both uploads and downloads (with this you can monitor IP activity). Now click the lightning bolt, and your server is now up and running.

    Post your ftp info, like this:

    213.10.93.141 (or something else, such as: 'f*p://example.getmyip.com')

    User: *** (The username of the client)

    Pass: *** (The password)

    Port: *** (The port number you chose)

    So make a FTP and join the FTP section


    Listing The Contents Of A Ftp:

    Listing the content of a FTP is very simple.
    You will need FTP Content Maker, which can be downloaded from here:
    ht*p://www.etplanet.com/download/application/FTP%20Content%20Maker%201.02.zip

    1. Put in the IP of the server. Do not put "ftp://" or a "/" because it will not work if you do so.
    2. Put in the port. If the port is the default number, 21, you do not have to enter it.
    3. Put in the username and password in the appropriate fields. If the login is anonymous, you do not have to enter it.
    4. If you want to list a specific directory of the FTP, place it in the directory field. Otherwise, do not enter anything in the directory field.
    5. Click "Take the List!"
    6. After the list has been taken, click the UBB output tab, and copy and paste to wherever you want it.


    If FTP Content Maker is not working, it is probably because the server does not utilize Serv-U Software.

    If you get this error message:
    StatusCode = 550
    LastResponse was : 'Unable to open local file test-ftp'
    Error = 550 (Unable to open local file test-ftp)
    Error = Unable to open local file test-ftp = 550
    Close and restart FTP Content Maker, then try again.




    error messages:

    110 Restart marker reply. In this case, the text is exact and not left to the particular implementation; it must read: MARK yyyy = mmmm Where yyyy is User-process data stream marker, and mmmm server's equivalent marker (note the spaces between markers and "=").
    120 Service ready in nnn minutes.
    125 Data connection already open; transfer starting.
    150 File status okay; about to open data connection.
    200 Command okay.
    202 Command not implemented, superfluous at this site.
    211 System status, or system help reply.
    212 Directory status.
    213 File status.
    214 Help message. On how to use the server or the meaning of a particular non-standard command. This reply is useful only to the human user.
    215 NAME system type. Where NAME is an official system name from the list in the Assigned Numbers document.
    220 Service ready for new user.
    221 Service closing control connection. Logged out if appropriate.
    225 Data connection open; no transfer in progress.
    226 Closing data connection. Requested file action successful (for example, file transfer or file abort).
    227 Entering Passive Mode (h1,h2,h3,h4,p1,p2).
    230 User logged in, proceed.
    250 Requested file action okay, completed.
    257 "PATHNAME" created.
    331 User name okay, need password.
    332 Need account for login.
    350 Requested file action pending further information.
    421 Too many users logged to the same account
    425 Can't open data connection.
    426 Connection closed; transfer aborted.
    450 Requested file action not taken. File unavailable (e.g., file busy).
    451 Requested action aborted: local error in processing.
    452 Requested action not taken. Insufficient storage space in system.
    500 Syntax error, command unrecognized. This may include errors such as command line too long.
    501 Syntax error in parameters or arguments.
    502 Command not implemented.
    503 Bad sequence of commands.
    504 Command not implemented for that parameter.
    530 Not logged in.
    532 Need account for storing files.
    550 Requested action not taken. File unavailable (e.g., file not found, no access).
    551 Requested action aborted: page type unknown.
    552 Requested file action aborted. Exceeded storage allocation (for current directory or dataset).
    553 Requested action not taken. File name not allowed.


    Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation

    Introduction
    One of the most commonly seen questions when dealing with firewalls and other Internet connectivity issues is the difference between active and passive FTP and how best to support either or both of them. Hopefully the following text will help to clear up some of the confusion over how to support FTP in a firewalled environment.

    This may not be the definitive explanation, as the title claims, however, I've heard enough good feedback and seen this document linked in enough places to know that quite a few people have found it to be useful. I am always looking for ways to improve things though, and if you find something that is not quite clear or needs more explanation, please let me know! Recent additions to this document include the examples of both active and passive command line FTP sessions. These session examples should help make things a bit clearer. They also provide a nice picture into what goes on behind the scenes during an FTP session. Now, on to the information...



    The Basics
    FTP is a TCP based service exclusively. There is no UDP component to FTP. FTP is an unusual service in that it utilizes two ports, a 'data' port and a 'command' port (also known as the control port). Traditionally these are port 21 for the command port and port 20 for the data port. The confusion begins however, when we find that depending on the mode, the data port is not always on port 20.



    Active FTP
    In active mode FTP the client connects from a random unprivileged port (N > 1024) to the FTP server's command port, port 21. Then, the client starts listening to port N+1 and sends the FTP command PORT N+1 to the FTP server. The server will then connect back to the client's specified data port from its local data port, which is port 20.

    From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support active mode FTP the following communication channels need to be opened:

    FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
    FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's control port)
    FTP server's port 20 to ports > 1024 (Server initiates data connection to client's data port)
    FTP server's port 20 from ports > 1024 (Client sends ACKs to server's data port)


    In step 1, the client's command port contacts the server's command port and sends the command PORT 1027. The server then sends an ACK back to the client's command port in step 2. In step 3 the server initiates a connection on its local data port to the data port the client specified earlier. Finally, the client sends an ACK back as shown in step 4.

    The main problem with active mode FTP actually falls on the client side. The FTP client doesn't make the actual connection to the data port of the server--it simply tells the server what port it is listening on and the server connects back to the specified port on the client. From the client side firewall this appears to be an outside system initiating a connection to an internal client--something that is usually blocked.



    Active FTP Example
    Below is an actual example of an active FTP session. The only things that have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com (192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in black, and user input is in bold.

    There are a few interesting things to consider about this dialog. Notice that when the PORT command is issued, it specifies a port on the client (192.168.150.80) system, rather than the server. We will see the opposite behavior when we use passive FTP. While we are on the subject, a quick note about the format of the PORT command. As you can see in the example below it is formatted as a series of six numbers separated by commas. The first four octets are the IP address while the second two octets comprise the port that will be used for the data connection. To find the actual port multiply the fifth octet by 256 and then add the sixth octet to the total. Thus in the example below the port number is ( (14*256) + 178), or 3762. A quick check with netstat should confirm this information.

    testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
    Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.
    220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.
    Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
    ---> USER slacker
    331 Password required for slacker.
    Password: TmpPass
    ---> PASS XXXX
    230 User slacker logged in.
    ---> SYST
    215 UNIX Type: L8
    Remote system type is UNIX.
    Using binary mode to transfer files.
    ftp> ls
    ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
    ---> PORT 192,168,150,80,14,178
    200 PORT command successful.
    ---> LIST
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.
    drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
    226 Transfer complete.
    ftp> quit
    ---> QUIT
    221 Goodbye.


    Passive FTP
    In order to resolve the issue of the server initiating the connection to the client a different method for FTP connections was developed. This was known as passive mode, or PASV, after the command used by the client to tell the server it is in passive mode.

    In passive mode FTP the client initiates both connections to the server, solving the problem of firewalls filtering the incoming data port connection to the client from the server. When opening an FTP connection, the client opens two random unprivileged ports locally (N > 1024 and N+1). The first port contacts the server on port 21, but instead of then issuing a PORT command and allowing the server to connect back to its data port, the client will issue the PASV command. The result of this is that the server then opens a random unprivileged port (P > 1024) and sends the PORT P command back to the client. The client then initiates the connection from port N+1 to port P on the server to transfer data.

    From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support passive mode FTP the following communication channels need to be opened:

    FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
    FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's control port)
    FTP server's ports > 1024 from anywhere (Client initiates data connection to random port specified by server)
    FTP server's ports > 1024 to remote ports > 1024 (Server sends ACKs (and data) to client's data port)



    In step 1, the client contacts the server on the command port and issues the PASV command. The server then replies in step 2 with PORT 2024, telling the client which port it is listening to for the data connection. In step 3 the client then initiates the data connection from its data port to the specified server data port. Finally, the server sends back an ACK in step 4 to the client's data port.

    While passive mode FTP solves many of the problems from the client side, it opens up a whole range of problems on the server side. The biggest issue is the need to allow any remote connection to high numbered ports on the server. Fortunately, many FTP daemons, including the popular WU-FTPD allow the administrator to specify a range of ports which the FTP server will use. See Appendix 1 for more information.

    The second issue involves supporting and troubleshooting clients which do (or do not) support passive mode. As an example, the command line FTP utility provided with Solaris does not support passive mode, necessitating a third-party FTP client, such as ncftp.

    With the massive popularity of the World Wide Web, many people prefer to use their web browser as an FTP client. Most browsers only support passive mode when accessing ftp:// URLs. This can either be good or bad depending on what the servers and firewalls are configured to support.



    Passive FTP Example
    Below is an actual example of a passive FTP session. The only things that have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com (192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in black, and user input is in bold.

    Notice the difference in the PORT command in this example as opposed to the active FTP example. Here, we see a port being opened on the server (192.168.150.90) system, rather than the client. See the discussion about the format of the PORT command above, in the Active FTP Example section.

    testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
    Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.
    220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.
    Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
    ---> USER slacker
    331 Password required for slacker.
    Password: TmpPass
    ---> PASS XXXX
    230 User slacker logged in.
    ---> SYST
    215 UNIX Type: L8
    Remote system type is UNIX.
    Using binary mode to transfer files.
    ftp> passive
    Passive mode on.
    ftp> ls
    ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
    ---> PASV
    227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,150,90,195,149).
    ---> LIST
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list
    drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
    226 Transfer complete.
    ftp> quit
    ---> QUIT
    221 Goodbye.


    Summary
    The following chart should help admins remember how each FTP mode works:

    Active FTP :
    command : client >1024 -> server 21
    data : client >1024 <- server 20

    Passive FTP :
    command : client >1024 -> server 21
    data : client >1024 -> server >1024

    A quick summary of the pros and cons of active vs. passive FTP is also in order:

    Active FTP is beneficial to the FTP server admin, but detrimental to the client side admin. The FTP server attempts to make connections to random high ports on the client, which would almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on the client side. Passive FTP is beneficial to the client, but detrimental to the FTP server admin. The client will make both connections to the server, but one of them will be to a random high port, which would almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on the server side.

    Luckily, there is somewhat of a compromise. Since admins running FTP servers will need to make their servers accessible to the greatest number of clients, they will almost certainly need to support passive FTP. The exposure of high level ports on the server can be minimized by specifying a limited port range for the FTP server to use. Thus, everything except for this range of ports can be firewalled on the server side. While this doesn't eliminate all risk to the server, it decreases it tremendously.

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  • Burning BIN/CUE Images with Nero Burning Rom BIN/CUE image format is quite common on the Internet. It might seem that finding an appropriate software for burning these images is quite hard. Luckily, it's not. In addition to Golden Hawk CDRWin, the original software for BIN/CUE format, you can also use Nero Burning Rom to burn the images.

    Please make sure that you have the latest version of Nero, which now is 5.5.10.0


    Verify the CUE-sheet and open it with Nero
    Before doing anything else you have to verify that the path in the CUE-sheet is correct. A CUE-sheet is a plaintext file describing the structure and the location of the BIN-file. You can open up the .CUE -file using, for example, Notepad.

    The file should look something like this:

    FILE "IMAGE.BIN" BINARY
    TRACK 01 MODE1/2352
    INDEX 01 00:00:00


    Usually the CUE-filename and the BIN-filename have the same body -- e.g. IMAGE. All you need to do is verify that there is no path information on the
    FILE "IMAGE.BIN" BINARY
    -line. Ie. it should NOT read e.g.
    FILE "C:\TEMP\IMAGE.BIN" BINARY
    If there is any path information on the line, just remove it so that you have just the name of the .BIN-file as in the example above. Also make sure that the name of the .BIN in the CUE-sheet is the same as the actual .BIN file you have on hard-disk.

    Next load Nero Burning Rom and choose File, Burn Image....

    Load the CUE-sheet in Nero
    Choose the Files of Type: dropdown menu and select All Files *.*. Next just locate the .CUE file, select it and click Open. Make sure you select the .CUE -file, not the .BIN -file.

    Burn the image
    All you have to do then is choose the writing speed, select the Disc-At-Once Write Method, and click Write.

    That's it! After a couple of minutes you'll have a CD with the BIN/CUE Image written on it.


    NOTES:
    --> Do not worry if the BIN file seems larger than the capacity of your CD-R or CD-RW. Bin files are raw data and once burned, the file size is smaller.

    --> If you have a DVD burner, just burn the cue/bin directly onto the DVD. Then use Daemon Tools to mount the cue/bin image when you use the files. This way you maintain a true exact image. And Daemon Tools (also Alcohol CDR burning software, which has the same feature) mounts the image, and you see the files instead of the bin/cue.
    _________________

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